A member of the family of B-Vitamins, Biotin serves as a coenzyme in carboxylation reactions which are useful in many of the body's functions including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, propionate metabolism and leucine catabolism. Biotin promotes healthy hair, skin and nails.*
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
In mammals, Biotin functions as an essential coenzyme in four carboxylases which bind the Biotin moiety. Pyruvate carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase function in the mitochondria, while the fourth, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is found in both the mitochondria and cytosol. These enzymes function in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, propionate metabolism and leucine catabolism.*
Beta-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase is essential for the catabolism of the branch-chained amino acid leucine. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl CoA to form malonyl CoA, a substrate for fatty acid elongation. Pyruvate carboxylase is required for the carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate, an intermediate in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Oxaloacetate can be converted into glucose in the liver and kidney. Propionyl-CoA catalyzes a carboxylation reaction that ultimately leads to the formation of succunyl-CoA, another member of the Krebs TCA cycle.
Boas conducted studies in the 1920s on rats fed proteins from several sources. She observed that rats fed raw egg did not have the support of skin and hair health that the other rats did. This "egg white injury" is now known to be a result of the very tight and specific binding of Biotin by avidin, a glycoprotein found in uncooked egg whites. There is evidence to suggest that fatty acid metabolism secondary to Biotin-dependant carboxylases plays an important role in the health of hair, skin and nails.*
Certain regularly prescribed drugs or other circumstances may lead to Biotin depletions. PhysioLogics' Biotin 5 mg may be an opportune way to ensure a daily intake of this essential B-Vitamin to support the health of your clients' hair, skin and nails.*
HOW CLIENTS MAY BENEFIT
Biotin functions as a coenzyme in four carboxylases important for a variety of functions including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, propionate metabolism and leucine catabolism. Healthy skin, hair and nails are dependant on the functions of the Biotin. Supplementing your clients' diets with Biotin 5 mg may be an opportune way to replenish the body with this essential B-Vitamin.*
For adults, take one (1) capsule daily, preferably with a meal or follow the advice of your healthcare professional. As a reminder, discuss the supplements and medications you take with your healthcare providers.
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Machlin, L.J. Handbook of Vitamins. New York, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1984. 403-435.
Mock, D.M. Seminars in Dermatology. 10:296-302. 1991.
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